Curs 09 Semestrul II

Obiectivele cursului:

  • Studentul va trebui să stăpînească valorile aoristului, mai ales în ceea ce priveşte aspectul.
  • Aoristul va fi studiat din perspectiva valorii sintactice şi se vor face aplicaţii la text, accentuîndu-se nuanţele în traducere.
  • Se va traduce şi interpreta textul indicat.

Ascultă fişierul audio corespunzător.

Textul

Citeşte cu atenţie textul şi scoate cuvintele necunoscute.

10:1 ᾿Αμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ὁ μὴ εἰσερχόμενος διὰ τῆς θύρας εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν τῶν προβάτων, ἀλλὰ ἀναβαίνων ἀλλαχόθεν, ἐκεῖνος κλέπτης ἐστὶ καὶ λῃστής·

10:2 ὁ δὲ εἰσερχόμενος διὰ τῆς θύρας ποιμήν ἐστι τῶν προβάτων.

10:3 τούτῳ ὁ θυρωρὸς ἀνοίγει, καὶ τὰ πρόβατα τῆς φωνῆς αὐτοῦ ἀκούει, καὶ τὰ ἴδια πρόβατα καλεῖ κατ᾿ ὄνομα καὶ ἐξάγει αὐτά.

10:4 καὶ ὅταν τὰ ἴδια πρόβατα ἐκβάλῃ, ἔμπροσθεν αὐτῶν πορεύεται, καὶ τὰ πρόβατα αὐτῷ ἀκολουθεῖ, ὅτι οἴδασι τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῦ·

10:5 ἀλλοτρίῳ δὲ οὐ μὴ ἀκολουθήσουσιν, ἀλλὰ φεύξονται ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ, ὅτι οὐκ οἴδασι τῶν ἀλλοτρίων τὴν φωνήν.

10:6 Ταύτην τὴν παροιμίαν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς· ἐκεῖνοι δὲ οὐκ ἔγνωσαν τίνα ἦν ἃ ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς.

10:7 Εἶπεν οὖν πάλιν αὐτοῖς ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς· ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ θύρα τῶν προβάτων.

10:8 πάντες ὅσοι ἦλθον πρὸ ἐμοῦ κλέπται εἰσὶ καὶ λῃσταί· ἀλλ᾿ οὐκ ἤκουσαν αὐτῶν τὰ πρόβατα.

10:9 ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ θύρα· δι᾿ ἐμοῦ ἐάν τις εἰσέλθῃ, σωθήσεται, καὶ εἰσελεύσεται καὶ ἐξελεύσεται, καὶ νομὴν εὑρήσει.

10:10 ὁ κλέπτης οὐκ ἔρχεται εἰ μὴ ἵνα κλέψῃ καὶ θύσῃ καὶ ἀπολέσῃ· ἐγὼ ἦλθον ἵνα ζωὴν ἔχωσι καὶ περισσὸν ἔχωσιν.

10:11 ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλός. ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλὸς τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ τίθησιν ὑπὲρ τῶν προβάτων·

10:12 ὁ μισθωτὸς δὲ καὶ οὐκ ὢν ποιμήν, οὗ οὐκ εἰσὶ τὰ πρόβατα ἴδια, θεωρεῖ τὸν λύκον ἐρχόμενον καὶ ἀφίησι τὰ πρόβατα καὶ φεύγει· καὶ ὁ λύκος ἁρπάζει αὐτὰ καὶ σκορπίζει τὰ πρόβατα.

10:13 ὁ δὲ μισθρωτὸς φεύγει, ὅτι μισθωτὸς ἐστι καὶ οὐ μέλει αὐτῷ περὶ τῶν προβάτων.

10:14 ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλός, καὶ γινώσκω τὰ ἐμὰ καὶ γινώσκομαι ὑπὸ τῶν ἐμῶν,

10:15 καθὼς γινώσκει με ὁ πατὴρ κἀγὼ γινώσκω τὸν πατέρα, καὶ τὴν ψυχήν μου τίθημι ὑπὲρ τῶν προβάτων.

10:16 καὶ ἄλλα πρόβατα ἔχω, ἃ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τῆς αὐλῆς ταύτης· κἀκεῖνά με δεῖ ἀγαγεῖν, καὶ τῆς φωνῆς μου ἀκούσουσι, καὶ γενήσονται μία ποίμνη, εἷς ποιμήν.

10:17 διὰ τοῦτό ὁ πατὴρ με ἀγαπᾷ, ὅτι ἐγὼ τίθημι τὴν ψυχήν μου, ἵνα πάλιν λάβω αὐτήν.

10:18 οὐδεὶς αἴρει αὐτὴν ἀπ᾿ ἐμοῦ, ἀλλ᾿ ἐγὼ τίθημι αὐτὴν ἀπ᾿ ἐμαυτοῦ· ἐξουσίαν ἔχω θεῖναι αὐτήν, καὶ ἐξουσίαν ἔχω πάλιν λαβεῖν αὐτήν· ταύτην τὴν ἐντολὴν ἔλαβον παρὰ τοῦ πατρός μου.

10:19 Σχίσμα οὖν πάλιν ἐγένετο ἐν τοῖς ᾿Ιουδαίοις διὰ τοὺς λόγους τούτους.

10:20 ἔλεγον δὲ πολλοὶ ἐξ αὐτῶν· δαιμόνιον ἔχει καὶ μαίνεται· τί αὐτοῦ ἀκούετε;

10:21 ἄλλοι ἔλεγον· ταῦτα τὰ ῥήματα οὐκ ἔστι δαιμονιζομένου· μὴ δαιμόνιον δύναται τυφλῶν ὀφθαλμοὺς ἀνοίγειν;

Textul alternativ http://www.greekbible.com

1Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, μὴ εἰσερχόμενος διὰ τῆς θύρας εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν τῶν προβάτων ἀλλὰ ἀναβαίνων ἀλλαχόθεν ἐκεῖνος κλέπτης ἐστὶν καὶ λῃστής: 2 δὲ εἰσερχόμενος διὰ τῆς θύρας ποιμήν ἐστιν τῶν προβάτων. 3τούτῳ θυρωρὸς ἀνοίγει, καὶ τὰ πρόβατα τῆς φωνῆς αὐτοῦ ἀκούει, καὶ τὰ ἴδια πρόβατα φωνεῖ κατ’ ὄνομα καὶ ἐξάγει αὐτά. 4ὅταν τὰ ἴδια πάντα ἐκβάλῃ, ἔμπροσθεν αὐτῶν πορεύεται, καὶ τὰ πρόβατα αὐτῷ ἀκολουθεῖ, ὅτι οἴδασιν τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῦ: 5ἀλλοτρίῳ δὲ οὐ μὴ ἀκολουθήσουσιν ἀλλὰ φεύξονται ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ, ὅτι οὐκ οἴδασιν τῶν ἀλλοτρίων τὴν φωνήν. 6Ταύτην τὴν παροιμίαν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ἰησοῦς: ἐκεῖνοι δὲ οὐκ ἔγνωσαν τίνα ἦν ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς. 7Εἶπεν οὖν πάλιν Ἰησοῦς, Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι θύρα τῶν προβάτων. 8πάντες ὅσοι ἦλθον [πρὸ ἐμοῦ] κλέπται εἰσὶν καὶ λῃσταί: ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἤκουσαν αὐτῶν τὰ πρόβατα. 9ἐγώ εἰμι θύρα: δι’ ἐμοῦ ἐάν τις εἰσέλθῃ σωθήσεται καὶ εἰσελεύσεται καὶ ἐξελεύσεται καὶ νομὴν εὑρήσει. 10 κλέπτης οὐκ ἔρχεται εἰ μὴ ἵνα κλέψῃ καὶ θύσῃ καὶ ἀπολέσῃ: ἐγὼ ἦλθον ἵνα ζωὴν ἔχωσιν καὶ περισσὸν ἔχωσιν. 11Ἐγώ εἰμι ποιμὴν καλός: ποιμὴν καλὸς τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ τίθησιν ὑπὲρ τῶν προβάτων: 12 μισθωτὸς καὶ οὐκ ὢν ποιμήν, οὗ οὐκ ἔστιν τὰ πρόβατα ἴδια, θεωρεῖ τὸν λύκον ἐρχόμενον καὶ ἀφίησιν τὰ πρόβατα καὶ φεύγει καὶ λύκος ἁρπάζει αὐτὰ καὶ σκορπίζει 13ὅτι μισθωτός ἐστιν καὶ οὐ μέλει αὐτῷ περὶ τῶν προβάτων. 14Ἐγώ εἰμι ποιμὴν καλός, καὶ γινώσκω τὰ ἐμὰ καὶ γινώσκουσί με τὰ ἐμά, 15καθὼς γινώσκει με πατὴρ κἀγὼ γινώσκω τὸν πατέρα: καὶ τὴν ψυχήν μου τίθημι ὑπὲρ τῶν προβάτων. 16καὶ ἄλλα πρόβατα ἔχω οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τῆς αὐλῆς ταύτης: κἀκεῖνα δεῖ με ἀγαγεῖν, καὶ τῆς φωνῆς μου ἀκούσουσιν, καὶ γενήσονται μία ποίμνη, εἷς ποιμήν. 17διὰ τοῦτό με πατὴρ ἀγαπᾷ ὅτι ἐγὼ τίθημι τὴν ψυχήν μου, ἵνα πάλιν λάβω αὐτήν. 18οὐδεὶς αἴρει αὐτὴν ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ, ἀλλ’ ἐγὼ τίθημι αὐτὴν ἀπ’ ἐμαυτοῦ. ἐξουσίαν ἔχω θεῖναι αὐτήν, καὶ ἐξουσίαν ἔχω πάλιν λαβεῖν αὐτήν: ταύτην τὴν ἐντολὴν ἔλαβον παρὰ τοῦ πατρός μου. 19Σχίσμα πάλιν ἐγένετο ἐν τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις διὰ τοὺς λόγους τούτους. 20ἔλεγον δὲ πολλοὶ ἐξ αὐτῶν, Δαιμόνιον ἔχει καὶ μαίνεται: τί αὐτοῦ ἀκούετε; 21ἄλλοι ἔλεγον, Ταῦτα τὰ ῥήματα οὐκ ἔστιν δαιμονιζομένου: μὴ δαιμόνιον δύναται τυφλῶν ὀφθαλμοὺς ἀνοῖξαι;

Exerciţii

1.       Identificaţi toate aoristele din text. Separaţi aoristul II de aoristul I.

2.      S-ar putea găsi sinonime pentru verbele la aorist, dacă sînt amîndouă la aorist, din fraza: ἐκεῖνοι δὲ οὐκ ἔγνωσαν τίνα ἦν ἃ ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς?

3.      Care este diferenţa dintre imperfect şi aorist? Cum arată verbul λάλεω la aorist?

4.      Care este valoarea din punctul de vedere al aspectului pentru verbul Εἶπεν din expresia  Εἶπεν οὖν πάλιν?

5.      Care ste funcţia aoristului din fraza ὅταν τὰ ἴδια πάντα ἐκβάλῃ, ἔμπροσθεν αὐτῶν πορεύεται? Observaţi consecuţia prezentului.

6.       Observaţi rolul aoristelor de tipul Εἶπεν şi ἦλθον.  (Atenţie la persoana şi număr la ἦλθον) Cum se traduc acestea?

7.      Observaţi succesiunea viitorului după aorist în fraza: δι’ ἐμοῦ ἐάν τις εἰσέλθῃ σωθήσεται καὶ εἰσελεύσεται καὶ ἐξελεύσεται καὶ νομὴν εὑρήσει.Cum modifică particula modală an funcţia aoristului?

8.      Care este rolul conjunctivului aorist în următoarea frază: ὁ κλέπτης οὐκ ἔρχεται εἰ μὴ ἵνα κλέψῃ καὶ θύσῃ καὶ ἀπολέσῃ? Dacă verbele ar fi fost la conjunctiv prezent, cum ar fi trebuit tradus textul? Studiaţi structura propoziţilor secundare.

9.      Identificaţi cazurile în care aoristul are valoare de prezent.

10.  Studiaţi din punct de vedere sintactic fraza: κἀκεῖνα δεῖ με ἀγαγεῖν,. Are vreo semnificaţie faptul că verbul din secundară este la infinitiv aorist?

11.  Studiaţi aceeaşi problemă în cazul ἐξουσίαν ἔχω θεῖναι αὐτήν, καὶ ἐξουσίαν ἔχω πάλιν λαβεῖν αὐτήν.

12.  Dacă ar fi fost înlocuit aoristul din fraza Σχίσμα πάλιν ἐγένετο ἐν τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις διὰ τοὺς λόγους τούτους.  care ar fi fost consecinţele?

13.  De ce nu s-ar folosi imperfectul ca în cazul: ἔλεγον δὲ πολλοὶ ἐξ αὐτῶν,?

Anunțuri

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